Turning at Bristol: A Weighty Matter

A lot of drivers cite Bristol as one of their favorite tracks. It’s a great exhibit for the argument that racing is more than just pure speed. High banks (which we know mean speed!) and a short track, which means tight racing. But a lot of drivers will tell you that Bristol is one of the most exhausting, physically demanding tracks on the circuit. Add to that the inherent stress of short-track racing, where 43 cars are operating in a limited (half-mile) track.

Regular readers know that the force it takes to turn a race car is given by:

EQ_CentripetalForceWords

So it is harder to turn (i.e. you need more force)

  • when you have a heavy car
  • when you’re going fast
  • when you’re trying to make a tight turn

So when you compare a thousand foot turn radius like at a superspeedway with the 250-foot turn radius of Bristol, it’s four times easier to turn at Daytona  — if you’re turning at the same speed.

Turning Force

Using a typical weight for a Gen-6 car (3300 lbs of car and 180 lbs of driver), we can figure out how much force it takes to make a car turn.  (Disclaimer: Parts of this table are from a previous blog.)

Track Turn radius
(ft)
Banking
(degrees)
Speed
(mph)
Turning Force
(lbs)
G’s
Talladega 1000 33 180 6,848 1.97
200 8,456 2.43
Daytona 1000 31 180 7,532 2.16
Bristol 242 24-28 130 16,235 4.67
100 9,606 2.76

Newton’s First Law says that a car going straight down the frontstretch at Bristol will keep going straight (and into the wall) unless a force acts on it and causes it to turn.

Consider a soccer ball rolling past you. You want to change its direction, so you kick it at a right angle to the direction it’s headed. The faster it’s moving, the harder you have to kick it to change its direction. The direction it goes is a combination (a physicist would say “a vector sum”) of the direction it had been heading and the direction of the force (the kick) you applied to it.

Putting Turning Force in Perspective…

Just to put these numbers in perspective, let’s look at one of the largest land animals, the elephant. My father always made a big deal of knowing the difference between an African and an Asian elephant. The African elephant is larger (up to 13 feet tall) than the Asian (“only” 12 feet). You tell them apart because the African elephant has much larger ears, has two ‘fingers’ on its trunk, and has much more wrinkly skin. The Asian elephant has smaller ears, only one ‘finger’ on its trunk, and smoother skin on the head and face.

AsianvsAfricanElephants

What does this have to do with anything? An adult male African Elephant weighs, on average, 15,400 pounds.

Turning a NASCAR race car at Bristol at 130 mph requires a force slightly greater than the weight of an African Elephant.

I’ve graphed the force needed to turn as a function of speed below. (Note that the turn radii at Bristol are different for turns 1/2 and 3/4. Turns 1/2 have a turn radius of 242 ft, while 3/4 have a turn radius of 256 ft.)

 

BSPEED_Bristol_TurningForce

Compare this to Daytona, which has higher speeds, but also larger turns.

BSPEED_BristolvsDaytona2

So it’s actually easier to turn at Daytona, even though the speeds are a higher, you’ve got four times more turn radius.

Gs

We can also look at this in terms of the g’s the drivers pull while traveling around Bristol.

BSPEED_BristolvsDaytonaGs

Just for reference, most amusement park rides top out at about 3G; however, some roller coasters go up to 4G (SheiKra Rollercoaster at Tampa) or 4.5G (e.g. the Titan Rollercoaster in Texas).

Although the “G” is the acceleration due to the Earth’s gravity (which always points to the center of the Earth), we use G to measure acceleration in any direction: up or down, back or forth, or sideways.  Drag racers experience accelerations of about 5G backward at take off.  When you’re turning at constant speed, the acceleration is sideways (which engineers call ‘lateral’).

The green line is on there because around 5-6 G’s, drivers start to be impaired because the forces actually change the ability of the blood to circulate through the body. Drivers may experience greyout, which is a loss of color vision, tunnel vision (loss of peripheral vision), blackout (complete loss of vision, but still conscious) and finally G-LOC (which is loss of consciousness because of gravitational forces) .

Now, if you’re paying close attention, you will notice that the graph of ‘G’s and the graph of forces look very similar. In fact, they are the same trend because you get the g’s by dividing the turning force by the mass of the car and the acceleration due to gravity (32.2 ft/sec/sec).

The Effect of Banking: Inside Line or Outside Line

One of the most interesting things about Bristol is that it now has graduated banking – from 24 degrees to 28 degrees. As we’ve discussed before, the higher the banking, the more the track helps the car turn. But here’s the twist: If you go up high to take advantage of the higher banking, you actually have to travel a longer distance.  The racing surface width is 40 feet. Now, one of the problems with the way track measurements are specified is that you don’t actually know where they measured the track length.

BSPEED_Bristol_TrackConfigLet’s assume for the purposes of argument that the 0.533 width was measured at the apron – which means that the end of the track at the outside wall is 40 feet further out. The distance down the front and back stretches are the same, so all we’re worried about is the difference in the turns.

If you take the outside line rather than the inside line, you’re going about 125 feet more distance than your competitor who takes the inside line. So you have to find out, given your car’s setup, whether the additional banking helps you turn faster.

If you take the outer line then at 130 mph, you need 13,910 lbs of force, compared to the 16, 235 lbs you need at the inside. You pull 4.00 gs instead of 4.67 gs on the inside. At 130 mph, you’re covering 190 feet per second, so the time it takes you to traverse the extra 125 feet is a little more than half a second. Not much, right?

Except lap times run around 15 seconds.

At the April race, final practice times ranged from 15.043 seconds (Kurt Busch, in first place) to 15.818 seconds (Alex Kennedy in 43rd place).  Half a second takes you from first to 40th place. So you darned well better be faster if you’re traversing the outside.

Now, I don’t know where the 242.45 feet for the turn 1/2 radius was measured. If it was measured at the midpoint of the track, then the differential is smaller, but I figure I’d take the most extreme case to make the point.

Related Posts:

Racing Without Friction

Why Turning is Hard

Skirting the Issue

Flared side skirts became an issue when social media started noticing them somewhere around Kansas. The fact that the most obvious example of this was on the 2 car and Brad Keselowski is rapidly taking over from Kyle Busch as most-love-to-hate driver in NASCAR may have brought the issue to the fore faster.

The side skirts (or ‘vertical extension panels’) help seal the bottom of the car to the track. This picture, of the 2013 Toyota Camry, shows the clearest example of the side skirt because you can see the line where the side skirt joins onto the side of the body. The cutout is for the jack – if there were no pit stops, there’d be no reason for the cutout. The side skirts help funnel the air that does get under the car smoothly out, and they keep air from coming on on the sides.

2013_Camry_Side

Side skirts are made of a durable rigid plastic — except for one spot on the right side of the car near the tail pipe area. The rationale for this is that exhaust pipes get very hot. Although plastics are indeed the material of the future, plastics that are really, really heat resistant also tend to be expensive and harder to work with.

The plastic from which the side skirts are made is pretty rigid. You can cut it and bend it a little, but you really can’t monkey with it too much.  Except for that metal part, near the right rear wheel.  You know… this part:

NASCAR_2014_FlaredSideSkirts

Flaring out the right rear of the side skirt started out being done by a couple of teams and now you can find most all of the teams doing it.  So now for the burning questions.

Is it illegal?

Nope. NASCAR hasn’t fined or taken points from anyone for doing it.

Is it happening accidentally?

A lot of internet pundits initially claimed that this was the result of hard racing, no ride-height rule, and drivers racing on the apron, where the possibility of banging the car on the track is maximum. But not when it’s happening to so many cars and happening every week.

And then video appeared that showed jackmen pulling out the skirt during pit stops – right in front of the NASCAR officials overseeing the pitstop.  So no, it’s not happening by accident.

Is it really an advantage?

There have been a number of times in the garage where a team started doing something goofy just to see how many other teams would copy them. There are some cases I know about where teams made a modification they’d seen other teams make without understanding it — but they also had their engineers figuring out whether it was doing anything. If one of the backmarker teams had started doing this, I doubt anyone else would have noticed, unless that team all-of-a-sudden improved.

NASCAR does have a history of allowing something and then cracking down on it when it becomes too blatant, so the first teams doing this knew they might get their hand slapped.

The argument people have made is that it changes the balance of aerodynamic force. you’re providing a couple more square inches for air molecules to slam into. In this case, I doubt there’s much of an effect down the straightaway (especially with the rear-end skew), but it probably does help a little in the corners.

It certainly isn’t hurting the cars, or teams wouldn’t be doing it.

Why are they only doing it on the right? If it increases downforce, wouldn’t you do it on both sides?

They can’t do it on the left. The left-side skirt is entirely plastic and you can’t bend it. Plus, the issue here is really in helping the car turn, so you wouldn’t want to make the same change on both sides.

Should NASCAR prohibit it?

BenHur

First, let’s note that this has been going on for much longer than most people realize.  Like most things in NASCAR, it starts with one team sticking their nose out a little (or their skirt out a little) and escalates until it’s a big enough effect that those of us sitting at home notice.

It’s not like NASCAR hasn’t been aware of what’s going on.

The main reason I can see for NASCAR stepping in is that a sharp piece of metal sticking out at wheel height has the potential to turn Phoenix and Homestead into the Roman Colosseum.

Not that anyone would purposely try to cut someone’s tire down, but it makes bumpin’ and bangin’ a very different proposition.

Here’s the problem. It’s going to be tough to police. And I don’t say that just because Jeff Burton said it and he’s almost always right. It is possible for the skirt to get bent and banged by (for example) a tire being pulled off at an angle, or contact on the track.

The NASCAR pit officials can’t see everything. Their primary job during pit stops is to make sure the wheels aren’t going to come off again. Do you want them to take their eyes off the tires so they can check what the jackman is doing? Maybe with the electronic pit officiating coming next year, that will be possible.  Not this year.

NASCAR’s Sprint Cup Series Director Richard Buck told popularspeed.com

“I will say the garage is comfortable with how we’re managing it right now.  It’s the same for everyone. That’s how we try to manage everything — that it’s the same for the big teams as it is for the little teams.”

NASCAR has done a really good job not knee-jerk reacting to things. They tend to wait and see how things evolve. When they threaten to get out of hand, NASCAR makes a rule. This happened with the skewed-out rear ends a few years ago. It got to a certain point and then it got silly.  The cars couldn’t even get up on the rails for tech. When NASCAR made the rule, it had all the details – how much they would allow, how it would be measured.

I wouldn’t be surprised if they do something next year, but don’t expect anything to happen in the next two races – unless there’s a catastrophic accident that can be linked back to the flared side skirts.

And on a chemical note…

I always tried, as a teacher, to find analogies to help my students understand scientific concepts.  For example, my mental picture of “potential energy” is of a cat about to pounce or a sprinter on the blocks the second before the gun starts the race. You can see the energy ready to go in the tensed up muscles and once they move, you can see the kinetic energy (energy of motion).

Last Sunday at Texas, I got another one.

A catalyst is a chemical that initiates or speeds up a chemical reaction, without taking part in said reaction itself. All I need is a good video from Texas to make my point now.

That, or chemists everywhere should start referring to catalysis as “Harvicking”.